Charles K. Bellinger
The literature on religion and violence was already substantial
before the Sept. 11 attacks, and it has swelled at an increased pace since then. I have
not seen abundant evidence, however, that the serious reflections on violence expressed in
these books has made a noticeable impact on the shape of higher education, on news media
reporting, or on the thinking of government officials around the world. This is
Popular opinion doesn't reflect on the complexity of violence. We
assume that violence (that is, the violence done by others) is evil, but we don't
understand it and seem to have little interest in understanding it. The authors listed
below are trying to change that situation in both respects. They invite us to develop an
interest in reflecting on violence and offer substantive understandings of it from their
own perspectives. I foresee a time in the future when their efforts will bear fruit as a
"critical mass" of interest develops and overcomes the apathy of our current
situation. At that point, the ideas contained in these books will begin to have a
significant impact on higher education, the media, and governmental and military
A. Social Science Perspectives
The books listed here are primarily analyses of violence written by psychologists,
anthropologists, and sociologists. Becker's work develops a theory of "death
denial" as the root of violence. Alford's book is an updated version of Becker.
Bauman argues that Naziism was the logical outcome of modern technological advances and
concern for efficiency. The set of four volumes edited by Ellens is a major contribution
to this topic, presenting essays by an impressive gathering of scholars in various fields.
Volume 3 of Stout's collection of essays is similar. Jung is a widely read shaper of
contemporary psychological thought.
- Aho, James Alfred. This Thing of Darkness: A Sociology of the Enemy.
Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994.
- Alford, C. Fred. What Evil Means to Us. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
- Antoun, Richard T. Understanding Fundamentalism: Christian, Islamic and Jewish
Movements. New York: AltaMira, 2001.
- Barash, David P. Understanding Violence. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
- Bartov, Omer, and Phyllis Mack, eds. In God's Name: Genocide and Religion in
the Twentieth Century. New York: Berghahn, 2001.
- Bauman, Zygmunt. Modernity and the Holocaust. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press, 1989.
- Baumeister, Roy F. Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty. New York: W.H.
- Becker, Ernest. Escape from Evil. New York: Free Press, 1975.
- Bloom, Mia. Dying To Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror. New York:
Columbia University Press, 2005.
- Bromley, David G., and J. Gordon Melton, eds. Cults, Religion, and Violence.
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
- Carter, Jeffrey, ed. Understanding Religious Sacrifice: A Reader. New
York: Continuum, 2003.
- Cooper, Terry D. Dimensions of Evil: Contemporary Perspectives.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007.
- Diamond, Stephen A. Anger, Madness, and the Daimonic: The Psychological Genesis
of Violence, Evil, and Creativity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press,
- Ehrenreich, Barbara. Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War.
New York: Metropolitan Books, 1997.
- Ellens, J. Harold, ed. The Destructive Power of Religion: Violence in Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam. 4 vols. Westport: Praeger, 2004.
- Ganiel, Gladys. Evangelicalism and Conflict in Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
- Gilligan, James. Violence: Reflections on a National Epidemic. New York:
Vintage Books, 1997.
- Goldberg, Carl. Speaking with the Devil: A Dialogue with Evil. New York:
- Good, Jeanette Anderson. Shame, Images of God, and the Cycle of Violence in
Adults Who Experienced Childhood Corporal Punishment. Lanham, MD: University Press of
- Grossman, Dave. On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. Boston: Little, Brown, 1995.
- Jefferis, Jennifer L. Religion and Political Violence: Sacred Protest in the Modern World. London: Routledge, 2010.
- Jones, James William. Blood That Cries Out from the Earth: The Psychology of Religious Terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
- Jung, C. G., and Murray Stein, ed. Jung on Evil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 1995.
- Lifton, Robert Jay. Destroying the World to Save It: Aum Shinrikyo, Apocalyptic
Violence, and the New Global Terrorism. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1999.
- _____. Superpower Syndrome: America's Apocalyptic Confrontation with the World.
New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2003.
- Martin, David. Does Christianity Cause War? New York: Oxford University
- Miller, Alice. For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-rearing and the Roots
of Violence. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983.
- Moore, Robert L. Facing the Dragon: Confronting Personal and Spiritual
Grandiosity. Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications, 2003.
- Oppenheimer, Paul. Evil and the Demonic: A New Theory of Monstrous Behavior.
New York: New York University Press, 1996.
- Peck, M. Scott. People of the Lie: The Hope for Healing Human Evil. New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1998.
- Petito, Fabio, and Pavlos Hatzopoulos, eds. Religion in International
Relations: The Return from Exile. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
- Price, Daniel E. Sacred Terror: How Faith Becomes Lethal. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2012.
- Reich, Walter, ed. Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies,
States of Mind. New York: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1990.
- Selengut, Charles. Sacred Fury: Understanding Religious Violence, 2nd ed.
Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
- Smith, David Livingston. The Most Dangerous Animal: Human Nature and the
Origins of War. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
- Stout, Chris, ed. The Psychology of Terrorism. Vol. 3. Westport: Praeger,
- Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja. Leveling Crowds: Ethno-Nationalist Conflicts and
Collective Violence in South Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
- Waller, James. Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass
Killing. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Weinberg, Leonard, and Ami Pedahzur, eds. Religious Fundamentalism and
Political Extremism. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2004.
B. Violence and Sacred Scriptures
Many of the books in other subsections of this bibliography also treat scriptural themes.
This gathering has a particular focus on the ways scriptures can be used to support violence or peace.
- Avalos, Hector. Fighting Words: The Origins of Religious Violence.
Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005.
- Barmash, Pamela. Homicide in the Biblical World. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2005.
- Bekkenkamp, Jonneke, and Yvonne Sherwood, eds. Sanctified Aggression: Legacies
of Biblical and Post Biblical Vocabularies of Violence. New York: T & T Clark
- Brueggemann, Walter. Divine Presence Amid Violence: Contextualizing the Book of Joshua. Eugene, Ore: Cascade Books, 2009.
- Carmody, Denise Lardner, and John Carmody. Peace and Justice in the Scriptures
of the World Religions: Reflections on Non-Christian Scriptures. New York: Paulist
- Chilton, Bruce. Abraham's Curse: The Roots of Violence in Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam. New York: Doubleday, 2008.
- Copan, Paul. Is God a Moral Monster?: Making Sense of the Old Testament God. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2011.
- Delaney, Carol Lowery. Abraham on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.
- De Villiers, Pieter, and J. W. van Henten, eds. Coping with Violence in the New Testament. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
- Eberhart, Christian. The Sacrifice of Jesus: Understanding Atonement Biblically. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.
- Emilsen, William W., and John T. Squires, eds. Validating Violence--Violating Faith?: Religion, Scripture and Violence. Adelaide: ATF Press, 2008.
- Gibson, E. Leigh, and Shelly Matthews, eds. Violence in the New Testament.
New York: T & T Clark, 2005.
- Janzen, David. The Violent Gift: Trauma's Subversion of the Deuteronomistic History's Narrative. New York, NY: T & T Clark International, 2012.
- Kahn, Paul W. Out of Eden: Adam and Eve and the Problem of Evil.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.
- Ludemann, Gerd. The Unholy in Holy Scripture: The Dark Side of the Bible.
Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997.
- McDonald, Patricia M. God and Violence: Biblical Resources for Living in a
Small World. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 2004.
- Monroe, Lauren A. S. Josiah's Reform and the Dynamics of Defilement: Israelite Rites of Violence and the Making of a Biblical Text. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Neufeld, Thomas R. Killing Enmity: Violence and the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011.
- Sanders, John, ed. Atonement and Violence: A Theological Conversation.
Nashville: Abingdon, 2006.
- Schwartz, Regina M. The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
- Nelson-Pallmeyer, Jack. Is Religion Killing Us?: Violence in the Bible and the
Quran. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2003.
- Reeder, Caryn A. The Enemy in the Household: Family Violence in Deuteronomy and Beyond. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2012.
- Seibert, Eric A. The Violence of Scripture: Overcoming the Old Testament's Troubling Legacy. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2012.
- Streett, Matthew J. Here Comes the Judge: Violent Pacifism in the Book of Revelation. London: T & T Clark, 2012.
- Verheyden, Jozef, Tobias Nicklas, and Andreas Merkt, eds. Ancient Christian interpretations of "violent texts" in the Apocalypse. Go¨ttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011.
- Yoder, John Howard. The Politics of Jesus: Vicit Agnus Noster. 2nd ed.
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994.
C. Humanities and Religious Studies Perspectives
The books included in this section are written from the perspectives of religious
studies, or philosophy, history, literature, or journalism that includes attention to
religious traditions. Appleby, Juergensmeyer, and Kimball have offered widely read
commentaries on the various ways in which religion and violence are related to each other
in the contemporary world. The Chase and Jacobs volume contains papers given at a major
conference on Christianity and violence, including a lively debate between Stanley
Hauerwas and John Milbank on the ethics of violence. The Jewett and Lawrence book
criticizes the tendency of Americans to simplistically identify themselves with good and
their enemies with evil. The Marty and Appleby book is part of an important five volume
series analyzing fundamentalism. There is also a growing strand of books on cults, new
religious movements, etc., in relation to violence.
- Adams, Carol J., and Marie M. Fortune. Violence Against Women and Children: A
Christian Theological Sourcebook. New York: Continuum, 1995.
- Allen, Douglas, ed. Comparative Philosophy and Religion in Times of Terror.
Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.
- Al-Rasheed, Madawi, and Marat Shterin, eds. Dying for Faith: Religiously Motivated Violence in the Contemporary World. London: I.B. Tauris, 2009.
- Appleby, R. Scott. The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and
Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.
- Barlow, Hugh. Dead for Good: Martyrdom and the Rise of the Suicide Bomber.
Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2007.
- Bellinger, Charles K. The Trinitarian Self: The Key to the Puzzle of Violence. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick, 2008.
- Bennett, Gaymon, et al., eds. The Evolution of Evil. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008.
- Beuken, Wim, and Karl-Josef Kuschel, eds. Religion as a Source of Violence.
London SCM Press: Maryknoll N.Y., 1997.
- Broadhead, Philip, and Damien Keown, eds. Can Faiths Make Peace?: Holy Wars and
the Resolution of Religious Conflicts. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2007.
- Candland, Christopher. The Spirit of Violence: An Interdisciplinary
Bibliography of Religion and Violence. New York: Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, 1992.
- Carlson, John D., and Jonathan H. Ebel, eds. From Jeremiad to Jihad: Religion, Violence, and America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.
- Cavanaugh, William T. Torture and Eucharist: Theology, Politics, and the Body of Christ. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 1998.
- _____. The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict . New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Chase, Kenneth R., and Alan Jacobs, eds. Must Christianity Be Violent?:
Reflections on History, Practice, and Theology. Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, 2003.
- Crockett, Clayton, ed. Religion and Violence in a Secular World: Toward a New
Political Theology. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2006.
- de Vries, Hent. Religion and Violence: Philosophical Perspectives from Kant to
Derrida. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
- Docherty, Jayne Seminare. Learning Lessons from Waco: When the Parties Bring
Their Gods to the Negotiation Table. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2001.
- Drury, Shadia B. Terror and Civilization: Christianity, Politics, and the
Western Psyche. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
- Eagleton, Terry. Holy Terror. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
- Eisen, Robert. The Peace and Violence of Judaism: From the Bible to Modern Zionism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Ellis, Marc H. Unholy Alliance: Religion and Atrocity in Our Time.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997.
- Erickson, Victoria Lee, and Michelle Lim Jones, eds. Surviving Terror: Hope and
Justice in a World of Violence. Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, 2002.
- Fernandes, Edna. Holy Warriors: A Journey into the Heart of Indian Fundamentalism. New Delhi: Viking, 2006.
- Fields, Rona M., ed. Martyrdom: The Psychology, Theology, and Politics of
Self-sacrifice. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
- Gaddis, Michael. There Is No Crime for Those Who Have Christ: Religious
Violence in the Christian Roman Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press,
- Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with
Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 1998.
- Gray, John. Black Mass: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia.
New York: Farrar Strauss Giroux, 2007.
- Gushee, David P.The Righteous Gentiles of the Holocaust: A Christian
Interpretation. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994.
- Haar, Gerrie ter, and James J. Busuttil, eds. Bridge or Barrier: Religion,
Violence, and Visions for Peace. Boston: Brill, 2005.
- Hall, John R., Philip Daniel Schuyler, and Sylvaine Trinh. Apocalypse Observed:
Religious Movements, and Violence in North America, Europe, and Japan. London: New
- Hamblet, Wendy C. The Sacred Monstrous: A Reflection on Violence in Human
Communities. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004.
- Hashmi, Sohail H., and Steven Lee, eds. Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction:
Religious and Secular Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
- Hawkin, David J., ed. The Twenty-first Century Confronts Its Gods:
Globalization, Technology, and War. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.
- Hedges, Chris. War is a Force That Gives Us Meaning. New York:
- Hinnells, John, and Richard King, eds. Religion and Violence in South Asia.
New York: Routledge, 2006.
- Hoelzl, Michael, and Graham Ward, eds. The New Visibility of Religion: Studies in Religion and Cultural Hermeneutics. London: Continuum, 2008.
- Hoffman, R. Joseph, ed. The Just War and Jihad: Violence in Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2006.
- Houben, Jan E.M., and Karel R. van Kooij, eds. Violence Denied: Violence,
Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History.
Leiden: Brill, 1999.
- Ignatieff, Michael. The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience.
New York: Metropolitan Books, 1998.
- Isherwood, Lisa, and Rosemary Radford Ruether, eds. Weep Not for Your Children: Essays on Religion and Violence. London: Equinox, 2008.
- Jerryson, Michael K. Buddhist Fury: Religion and Violence in Southern Thailand. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Jewett, Robert, and John Shelton Lawrence. Captain America and the Crusade
Against Evil: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious
Violence. 3rd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
- Kakar, Sudhir. The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and
Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
- Kaur, Ravinder, ed. Religion, Violence, and Political Mobilisation in South
Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005.
- Keulen, Dirk van, and Martien E. Brinkman, eds. Christian Faith and Violence.
2 vols. Zoetermeer: Meinema, 2005.
- Kimball, Charles. When Religion Becomes Evil. San Francisco:
- Kirk-Duggan, Cheryl A. Refiner's Fire: A Religious Engagement with Violence.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2001.
- _____. Violence and Theology. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2006.
- Kirsch, Jonathan. The Grand Inquisitor's Manual: A History of Terror in the Name of God. New York: HarperOne, 2008.
- Kippenberg, Hans G. Violence As Worship: Religious Wars in the Age of Globalization. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2011.
- Krakauer, Jon. Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith. New
York: Anchor Books, 2004.
- Lannstrom, Anna, ed. Promise and Peril: The Paradox of Religion as Resource and
Threat. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003.
- Larsson, J.P.Understanding Religious Violence: Thinking Outside the Box on
Terrorism. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004.
- Lawrence, Bruce, and Aisha Karim, eds. On Violence: A Reader. Durham:
Duke University Press, 2007.
- Levi, Ken. Violence and Religious Commitment: Implications of Jim Jones's
People's Temple Movement. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press,
- Lewis, James R., ed. Violence and New Religious Movements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Lincoln, Bruce. Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology and Practice.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
- Lorca, Ernesto. One God: The Political and Moral Philosophy of Western
Civilization. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 2003.
- Maguire, Daniel C., and Sa’diyya Shaikh, eds. Violence Against Women in Contemporary
World Religions: Roots and Cures. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2007.
- Marty, Martin E. When Faiths Collide. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005.
- Marty, Martin E., and F. Scott Appleby, eds. Fundamentalisms and the State:
Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
- May, John D'Arcy. Transcendence and Violence: The Encounter of Buddhist,
Christian, and Primal Traditions. New York: Continuum, 2003.
- McClymond, Kathryn. Beyond Sacred Violence: A Comparative Study of Sacrifice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 2008.
- McTernan, Oliver. Violence in God's Name: Religion in an Age of Conflict.
Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2003.
- Milbank, John. Theology and Social Theory: Beyond Secular Reason.
Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1991.
- Murphy, Andrew R., ed. The Blackwell Companion to Religion and Violence. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
- Nussbaum, Martha. The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's
Future. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2007.
- Pahl, Jon. Empire of Sacrifice: The Religious Origins of American Violence. New York: New York University Press, 2010.
- Palmer-Fernandez, Gabriel, ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion and War. New
York: Routledge, 2004.
- Perica, Vjekoslav. Balkan Idols: Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Puniyani, Ram, ed. Religion, Power & Violence: Expression of Politics in
Contemporary Times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005.
- Reed, Betsy, ed. Nothing Sacred: Women Respond to Religious Fundamentalism and Terror. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press/Nation Books, 2002.
- Rennie, Bryan, and Philip L. Tite, eds. Religion, Terror, and Violence: Religious Studies Perspectives.
New York: Routledge, 2008.
- Reuter, Christoph. My Life Is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.
- Rinehart, James F. Apocalyptic Faith and Political Violence: Prophets of Terror.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
- Rittner, Carol, John K. Roth, and Wendy Whitworth, eds. Genocide in Rwanda:
Complicity of the Churches? St. Paul, MN: Aegis, 2004.
- Robbins, Thomas, and Susan J. Palmer. Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem:
Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements. New York: Routledge, 1997.
- Rosenbaum, Ron. Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil.
New York: Random House, 1998.
- Seiple, Robert A., and Dennis R. Hoover, eds. Religion and Security: The New
Nexus in International Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers,
- Sells, Michael. A Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
- Sen, Amartya. Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. New York: W.
W. Norton, 2006.
- Snow, Robert L. Deadly Cults: The Crimes of True Believers. Westport, CT:
- Sobrino, Jon. Where Is God?: Earthquake, Terrorism, Barbarity, and Hope.
Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2004.
- Sprinkle, Stephen. Unfinished Lives: Reviving the Memories of LGBTQ Hate Crimes Victims. Eugene, OR: Resource Publications, 2011.
- Steffen, Lloyd. The Demonic Turn: The Power of Religion to Inspire or Restrain
Violence. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2003.
- Stier, Oren Baruch, and J. Shawn Landres, eds. Religion, Violence, Memory, and Place. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.
- Suchocki, Marjorie. The Fall to Violence: Original Sin in Relational Theology.
New York: Continuum, 1994.
- Timmerman, Christiane, ed. Faith-based Radicalism: Christianity, Islam and
Judaism Between Constructive Activism and Destructive Fanaticism. Bruxelles: Peter
- Voegelin, Eric. Modernity Without Restraint: The Political Religions, The New
Science of Politics, and Science, Politics, and Gnosticism. Columbia: University of
Missouri Press, 2000.
- Walliss, John. Apocalyptic Trajectories: Millenarianism and Violence in the
Contemporary World. New York: Peter Lang, 2005.
- Ward, Keith. Is Religion Dangerous?. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007.
- Wellman, James K., Jr., ed. Belief and Bloodshed: Religion and Violence Across
Time and Tradition. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007.
- Wessinger, Catherine Lowman. How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown
to Heaven's Gate. New York: Seven Bridges Press, 2000.
- Wicker, Brian, ed. Witnesses to Faith?: Martyrdom in Christianity and Islam.
Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006.
D. René Girard, His Followers and Critics
If there is one voice that stands out in the realm of reflections on religion and
violence, it is certainly René Girard's. His religiously framed and
interdisciplinary theory of human psychology and cultural formation through violence has
already spawned a large secondary literature of response and critical commentary. Many of
these works take Girard's ideas and restate, popularize, or apply them to specific topics,
and are written from the perspective of an admiring follower. My contribution, The
Genealogy of Violence, brings Girard's ideas into conversation with the insights into
human behavior that are present in Kierkegaard's thought.
In my opinion, Girard ought to be nominated for the Nobel Prize for Peace, but it is doubtful that he is even on the radar screen of the nominating
committee. If a Nobel Prize can be given to Sartre and Churchill, it could certainly be given
to an author whose ideas are likely to make a significant contribution to any substantive
improvement in human self-understanding that may occur in the 21st century.
A significant database of information on primary and secondary works relating to
Girard is located on the web site of the Colloquium on Violence and Religion.
- Alison, James. Raising Abel: The Recovery of Eschatological Imagination.
New York: Crossroad Pub., 1996.
- Bailie, Gil. Violence Unveiled: Humanity at the Crossroads. New York:
- Bartlett, Anthony W. Cross Purposes: The Violent Grammar of Christian Atonement.
Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2001.
- Bellinger, Charles K. The Genealogy of Violence: Reflections on Creation,
Freedom, and Evil. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
- Depoortere, Frederiek. Christ in Postmodern Philosophy:
Gianni Vattimo, René Girard and Slavoj Zizek. London: T & T Clark, 2008.
- Fraser, Giles. Christianity and Violence: Girard, Nietzsche, Anselm and Tutu.
London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 2001.
- Girard, René. I See Satan Fall Like Lightning. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis
- ———. The Scapegoat. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
- ———. Violence and the Sacred. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1977.
- Girard, René, Joao Cezar de Castro Rocha, and Pierpaolo Antonello. Evolution and Conversion:
Dialogues on the Origin of Culture. New York: T & T Clark, 2007.
- Girard, René, Jean-Michel Oughourlian, and Guy Lefort. Things Hidden since the
Foundation of the World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987.
- Girard, René, and James G. Williams, ed. The Girard Reader. New York:
- Girard, René, and Robert Doran, ed. Mimesis and Theory: Essays on Literature and Criticism,
1953-2005. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.
- Hamerton-Kelly, Robert. Sacred Violence: Paul's Hermeneutic of the Cross.
Minneapolis : Fortress Press, 1992.
- Heim, S. Mark. Saved from Sacrifice: A Theology of the Cross. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark, ed. Violence and the Sacred in the Modern World.
London: Frank Cass, 1992.
- Lefebure, Leo D. Revelation, the Religions, and Violence. Maryknoll, NY:
- Marr, Andrew. Tools for Peace: The Spiritual Craft of St. Benedict and Rene´ Girard. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2007.
- Reineke, Martha Jane. Sacrificed Lives: Kristeva on Women and Violence.
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997.
- Schwager, Raymund. Must There Be Scapegoats?: Violence and Redemption in the
Bible. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987.
- Swartley, Willard M., ed. Violence Renounced: René Girard, Biblical Studies,
and Peacemaking. Telford, PA: Pandora Press, 2000.
- Wallace, Mark I. Fragments of the Spirit: Nature, Violence, and the Renewal of
Creation. New York: Continuum, 1996.
- Wallace, Mark I., and Theophus Harold Smith, eds. Curing Violence. Sonoma,
CA: Polebridge Press, 1994.
- Webb, Eugene. Philosophers of Consciousness: Polanyi, Lonergan, Voegelin,
Ricoeur, Girard, Kierkegaard. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.
- Williams, James G. The Bible, Violence, and the Sacred: Liberation from the
Myth of Sanctioned Violence. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992.
E. Commentaries on Islam, Violence, and Terrorism
This is a sampling of the many works that were published before the Sept. 11
attacks, and some since then, that consider the relationship between Islam and violence.
Many of these works have the conscious intention of providing a counterbalance to the
distorted views of Islam that are unfortunately widespread in the West. Huntington's work
describing the "bloody borders of Islam" has provoked much discussion and
critique in academic circles (including the book by Jonathan Sacks listed in the
"Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution" section below). James Turner Johnson,
Bruce B. Lawrence, and Bernard Lewis are widely recognized as "deans" of this
field of study.
- Abou El Fadl, Khaled. The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists.
New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2005.
- Akbar, M. J. The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and
Christianity. New York: Routledge, 2002.
- Allen, Charles. God's Terrorists: The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden Roots of Modern Jihad.
Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2006.
- Asad, Talal. On Suicide Bombing. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
- Ashour, Omar. The De-Radicalization of Jihadists: Transforming Armed Islamist Movements. London: Routledge, 2009.
- Ballen, Ken. Terrorists in Love: The Real Lives of Islamic Radicals. New York: Free Press, 2011.
- Bloom, Mia. Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror. New York:
Columbia University Press, 2005.
- Bonner, Michael. Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.
- Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkeley: University of California
- Cragg, Kenneth. Faith at Suicide: Lives Forfeit: Violent Religion--Human
Despair. Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic Press, 2005.
- Davis, Joyce. Martyrs: Innocence, Vengeance, and Despair in the Middle East.
New York: Palgrave, 2003.
- Firestone, Reuven. Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Huband, Mark. Warriors of the Prophet: The Struggle for Islam. Boulder,
CO: Westview Press, 1998.
- Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World
Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
- Husain, Ed. The Islamist: Why I Joined Radical Islam in Britain, What I Saw Inside and Why I Left. London: Penguin, 2007.
- Idriss, Mohammad Mazher, and Tahir Abbas, eds. Honour, Violence, Women and Islam. New York: Routledge, 2011.
- Israeli, Raphael. The Spread of Islamikaze Terrorism in Europe: The Third Islamic Invasion. London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2008.
- Johnson, James Turner. The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions.
University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.
- Johnson, James Turner, and John Kelsay. Cross, Crescent, and Sword: The
Justification and Limitation of War in Western and Islamic Tradition. New York:
Greenwood Press, 1990.
- Kenney, Jeffrey T. Muslim Rebels: Kharijites and the Politics of Extremism in
Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Kepel, Gilles. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 2002.
- ____. The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 2004.
- Khatab, Sayed. Understanding Islamic Fundamentalism: The Theological and Ideological Basis of Al-Qa'ida's Political Tactics. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2011.
- Khosrokhavar, Farhad. Suicide Bombers : Allah's New Martyrs. London: Pluto
- Kurzman, Charles. The Missing Martyrs: Why There Are so Few Muslim Terrorists. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Lawrence, Bruce B. Shattering the Myth: Islam Beyond Violence. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1998.
- Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong?: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Malik, Aftab Ahmad, ed. With God on Our Side: Politics and Theology of the War
on Terrorism. Bristol, England: Amal Press, 2006.
- Meddeb, Abdelwahab. The Malady of Islam. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
- Milton-Edwards, Beverley. Islamic Fundamentalism since 1945. New York:
- Moghaddam, Fathali M. From the Terrorists' Point of View: What They Experience
and Why They Come to Destroy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006.
- Mozaffari, Mehdi. Fatwa: Violence & Discourtesy. Aarhus, Denmark:
Aarhus Univiversity Press, 1998.
- Nazir-Ali, Michael. Conviction and Conflict: Islam, Christianity and World
Order. New York : Continuum, 2006.
- Oliver, Anne Marie, and Paul F. Steinberg. The Road to Martyrs’ Square: A
Journey Into the World of the Suicide Bomber. New York: Oxford University Press,
- Partner, Peter. God of Battles: Holy Wars of Christianity and Islam.
London: HarperCollins, 1997.
- Rubenstein, Richard L. Jihad and Genocide. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.
- Schall, James V. The Regensburg Lecture. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's
- Talal, Hassan bin. To Be a Muslim: Islam, Peace, and Democracy. Brighton,
UK: Sussex Academic Press, 2004.
- Victor, Barbara. Army of Roses: Inside the World of Palestinian Women Suicide
Bombers. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2003.
F. Responses to 9/11
If you are imagining that there has been a flood of books written about the
terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, you are right. This is a very selective listing of
some of them. The current Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, who happened to have
been in Manhattan on the day of the attacks, has offered thoughtful reflections on how the
West ought to work through its emotional and political/ethical response to terrorism.
Cooper draws on the philosophy of Eric Voegelin. Esposito, Lewis, Stern, and Lincoln are
experts on Islam with important insights to offer from their years of study.
- Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. New York:
Random House, 2002.
- Berquist, Jon L., ed. Strike Terror No More: Theology, Ethics, and the New War.
St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2002.
- Bsteh, Andreas, and Syed Tahir Mahmood, eds. Intolerance and Violence:
Manifestations, Reasons, Approaches: 2nd Vienna International Christian-Islamic Round
Table, Vienna, February 21 to 24, 2002. Modling, Austria: Verlag St. Gabriel, 2004.
- Cooper, Barry. New Political Religions, or an Analysis of Modern Terrorism.
Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004.
- Esposito, John L. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Forrester, Duncan B. Apocalypse Now?: Reflections on Faith in a Time of Terror.
Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005.
- Guiness, Os. Unspeakable: Facing Up to Evil in an Age of Genocide and Terror.
SanFrancisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2005.
- Heyward, Carter. God in the Balance: Christian Spirituality in Times of Terror.
Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2002.
- Ignatieff, Michael. The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.
- Langford, James R., and Leroy S. Rouner, eds. Walking with God in a Fragile
World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
- Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York:
Modern Library, 2003.
- Lincoln, Bruce. Holy Terrors: Thinking About Religion after September 11.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
- Markham, Ian, and Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, eds. 11 September: Religious
Perspectives on the Causes and Consequences. Oxford: Oneworld, 2002.
- Morris, Colin. Things Shaken - Things Unshaken: Reflections on Faith and Terror.
Werrington, UK: Epworth, 2006.
- Pyszczynski, Thomas A., Sheldon Solomon, and Jeff Greenberg. In the Wake of
9/11: The Psychology of Terror. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association,
- Scruton, Roger. The West and the Rest: Globalization and the Terrorist Threat.
Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2002.
- Singh, Balmiki Prasad. Bahudha and the Post 9/11 World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
- Stern, Jessica. Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New
York: Ecco, 2003.
- Williams, Rowan. Writing in the Dust: After September 11. Grand Rapids:
- Winfield, Richard Dien. Modernity, Religion, and the War on Terror. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007.
- Church, Forrest, ed. Restoring Faith: America's Religious Leaders Answer Terror
with Hope. New York: Walker, 2001.
- Kraybill, Donald B., and Linda Gehman Peachey, eds. Where Was God on September
11?: Seeds of Faith and Hope. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 2002.
- Loehr, Davidson. America, Fascism, and God: Sermons from a Heretical Preacher.
White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., 2005.
- Polk, David P., ed. Shaken Foundations: Sermons from America's Pulpits after
the Terrorist Attacks. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2001.
- Simmons, Martha J., and Frank A. Thomas, eds. 9.11.01: African American Leaders
Respond to an American Tragedy. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2001.
- Willimon, William H., ed. The Sunday after Tuesday: College Pulpits Respond to
9/11. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2002.
G. Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution
Out of the immense literature on peacemaking in general, I have selected some of
the works that specifically focus on religious aspects of the problem. Lederach and
Stassen are leaders in the area of conflict resolution strategizing. The Easwaran book
tells the fascinating story of Badshah Khan, a Muslim associate of Gandhi. The Chappell,
Goleman, and Nhât Hanh books present Buddhist perspectives on peace. Gopin is a Jewish
scholar deeply involved in issues of inter-religious dialogue between Jews, Christians,
and Muslims in the Middle East. Volf, Wink, and Yoder are significant contributors to
theological discussions of peacemaking in Christian circles. The activism and writings of
Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. have influenced many of the works listed in this
section. The volume edited by Little contains accounts of peacemakers in various parts of
- Abu-Nimer, Mohammed. Nonviolence and Peace Building in Islam: Theory and
Practice. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2003.
- Ariarajah, S. Wesley. Axis of Peace: Christian Faith in Times of Violence and
War. Geneva: WCC Publications, 2004.
- Arinze, Francis A. Religions for Peace: A Call for Solidarity to the Religions of the World.
New York: Doubleday, 2002.
- Astley, Jeff, Leslie J. Francis, and Mandy Robbins, eds. Peace or Violence: The Ends of Religion and
Education? Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2007.
- Baker, Sharon L., and Michael Hardin, eds. Peace Be with You: Christ's Benediction Amid Violent Empires. Telford, Pa: Cascadia Pub. House, 2010.
- Barash, David P., and Charles Webel. Peace and Conflict Studies. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002.
- Barbé, Dominique. A Theology of Conflict and Other Writings on Nonviolence.
Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989.
- Battle, Michael. Practicing Reconciliation in a Violent World. Harrisburg,
PA: Morehouse, 2005.
- Bieringer, R., and David J. Bolton. Reconciliation in Interfaith Perspective: Jewish, Christian and Muslim Voices. Leuven: Peeters, 2011.
- Brown, Tricia Gates. Getting in the Way: Stories from Christian
Peacemaker Teams. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 2005.
- Burns, J. Patout, ed. War and Its Discontents: Pacifism and Quietism in the
Abrahamic Traditions. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1996.
- Campbell, Charles L. The Word Before the Powers: An Ethic of Preaching.
Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002.
- Chacour, Elias. We Belong to the Land: The Story of a Palestinian Israeli Who Lives for
Peace and Reconciliation.
Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001.
- Chappell, David W., ed. Buddhist Peacework: Creating Cultures of Peace.
Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1999.
- Clapsis, Emmanuel, ed.Violence and Christian Spirituality: An Ecumenical Conversation.
Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2007.
- Coffey, Joseph I., and Charles T. Mathewes, eds. Religion, Law, and the Role of
Force: A Study of Their Influence on Conflict and on Conflict Resolution. Ardsley,
NY: Transnational Publishers, 2002.
- Cortright, David. Gandhi and Beyond: Nonviolence for an Age of
Terrorism. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2006.
- Coward, Harold, and Gordon S. Smith, eds. Religion and Peacebuilding.
Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.
- Easwaran, Eknath. Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan, A Man to Match His
Mountains. Tomales, CA: Nilgiri, 1999.
- Frost, J. William. A History of Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Muslim
Perspectives on War and Peace, 2 vols. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004.
- Galtung, Johan. Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and
Civilization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996.
- Gandhi. Gandhi on Non-violence. Edited, with an introd., by Thomas Merton.
New York: New Directions, 1965.
- Goleman, Daniel. Destructive Emotions: How Can We Overcome Them?: A Scientific
Dialogue with the Dalai Lama. New York: Bantam Books, 2003.
- Gopin, Marc. Between Eden and Armageddon: The Future of World Religions,
Violence, and Peacemaking. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
- ———. Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the
Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Gordon, Hayim, and Leonard Grob, eds. Education for Peace: Testimonies from
World Religions. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1987.
- Haar, Gerrie ter, and James J. Busuttil, eds. Bridge or Barrier: Religion,
Violence, and Visions for Peace. Boston: Brill, 2005.
- Halevi, Yossi Klein. At the Entrance to the Garden of Eden: A Jew's Search for
Hope with Christians and Muslims in the Holy Land. New York: Perennial, 2002.
- Holmes, Peter, and Emmanuel M. Kolini. Christ Walks Where Evil Reigned:
Responding to the Rwandan Genocide. Colorado Springs: Authentic, 2008.
- Johnson, David M., ed. Justice and Peace Education: Models for College and
University Faculty. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1986.
- Johnson, James Turner. The Quest for Peace: Three Moral Traditions in Western
Cultural History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.
- Johnson, Roger A. Peacemaking and Religious Violence: From Thomas Aquinas to Thomas Jefferson. Eugene, Or: Pickwick Publications, 2009.
- King, Jr., Martin Luther. Strength to Love. Minneapolis: Augsburg
- Küng, Hans. Global Responsibility: In Search of a New World Ethic. New
York: Crossroad, 1991.
- Kuriakose, K. K., ed. Religion, Terrorism and Globalization: Nonviolence: A New
Agenda. New York: Nova Science, 2006.
- Lederach, John Paul. The Journey Toward Reconciliation. Scottdale, PA:
Herald Press, 1999.
- ———. Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across
Cultures. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1995.
- Lederach, John Paul, and Cynthia Sampson, eds. From the Ground Up: Mennonite
Contributions to International Peacebuilding. New York: Oxford University Press,
- Lischer, Richard. The End of Words: The Language of Reconciliation in a Culture
of Violence. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005.
- Little, David, ed. Peacemakers in Action: Profiles of Religion in Conflict
Resolution. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
- McFaul, Thomas R. The Future of Peace and Justice in the Global Village:
The Role of the World Religions in the Twenty-first Century. Westport, CT: Praeger,
- Merton, Thomas, and Patricia A. Burton. Peace in the Post-Christian Era. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2004.
- Musser, Donald W., and D. Dixon Sutherland.War or Words?: Interreligious
Dialogue as an Instrument of Peace. Cleveland: Piglrim Press, 2005.
- Myers, Ched, and Elaine Enns. Ambassadors of Reconciliation. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2009.
- Nagler, Michael N.Our Spiritual Crisis: Recovering Human Wisdom in a Time of
Violence. Chicago: Open Court, 2005.
- Nardin, Terry, ed. The Ethics of War and Peace: Religious and Secular
Perspectives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
- Nelson-Pallmeyer, Jack. Worship in the Spirit of Jesus: Theology, Liturgy, and
Songs Without Violence. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2005.
- Nhât Hanh, Thích. Creating True Peace: Ending Violence in Yourself, Your
Family, Your Community, and the World. New York: Free Press, 2003.
- Peck, M. Scott. The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1987.
- Philpott, Daniel, ed. The Politics of Past Evil: Religion, Reconciliation, and the Dilemmas of Transitional Justice. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006.
- Pollefeyt, Didier, ed. Incredible Forgiveness: Christian Ethics Between
Fanaticism and Reconciliation. Leuven: Peeters, 2004.
- Rouner, Leroy S., ed. Religion, Politics, and Peace. Notre Dame, IN:
University of Notre Dame Press, 1999.
- Sacks, Jonathan. The Dignity of Difference: How to Avoid the Clash of
Civilizations. New York: Continuum, 2002.
- Said, Abdul Aziz, Nathan C. Funk, and Ayse S. Kadayifci, eds. Peace and
Conflict Resolution in Islam: Precept and Practice. Lanham, MD: University Press of
- Schmookler, Andrew Bard. Out of Weakness: Healing the Wounds That Drive Us to
War. New York: Bantam Books, 1988.
- Schrock-Shenk, Carolyn, and Lawrence Ressler. Making Peace with Conflict:
Practical Skills for Conflict Transformation. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1999.
- Seiple, Robert A. Ambassadors of Hope: How Christians Can Respond to the
World's Toughest Problems. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2004.
- Sisk, Timothy D., ed. Between Terror and Tolerance: Religious Leaders, Conflict, and Peacemaking. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2011.
- Smith-Christopher, Daniel L., ed. Subverting Hatred: The Challenge of
Nonviolence in Religious Traditions. New York: Orbis Books, 2000.
- Smock, David R. Perspectives on Pacifism: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Views
on Nonviolence and International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of
Peace Press, 1995.
- Stassen, Glen, ed. Just Peacemaking: Ten Practices for Abolishing War.
Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1998.
- Stassen, Glen. Just Peacemaking: Transforming Initiatives for Justice and Peace.
Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1992.
- Tutu, Desmond, and Mpho A. Tutu. Made for Goodness: And Why This Makes All the Difference. New York: HarperOne, 2010.
- Volf, Miroslav.The End of Memory: Remembering Rightly in a Violent World.
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007.
- _____. Exclusion and Embrace: A Theological Exploration of Identity, Otherness,
and Reconciliation. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996.
- Wink, Walter. The Powers That Be: Theology for a New Millennium. New York:
- Woodberry, J. Dudley, Osman Zumrut, and Mustafa Koylu, eds. Muslim and
Christian Reflections on Peace: Divine and Human Dimensions. Lanham, MD: University
Press of America, 2005.
- Yoder, John Howard. Nevertheless: Varieties of Religious Pacifism.
Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1992.
- Zaru, Jean. Occupied with Nonviolence: A Palestinian Woman Speaks. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2008.